Modeling software is a category of computer application used to produce 3D models. This category of software is called modeling or modeling applications.


Three-dimensional models represent an object using a set of points in 3D space, interconnected with geometric shapes such as triangles, lines, and curved surfaces. They can be created by hand, mathematically (procedural modeling), or scanned . [1]

3D models are widely used in 3D graphics. Many computer games use images produced from 3D models.


Today, 3D models are used in a wide variety of fields. In the medical industry, detailed models of devices are used where multiple two-dimensional slices of an image are created from an MRI or CT scan .
– The film industry uses modeling to create moving characters and objects in motion pictures .
– The video game industry uses it for computer and video games. The science sector uses them as detailed models for chemical compounds .
– The architecture industry uses it to demonstrate proposed buildings and landscapes through architectural modeling software.
– As well as a host of other uses. In recent decades the Earth science community has begun to build 3D geological models. It can also be 3D models of physical devices that are built with 3D printers or manufacturing machines based on using the computer .

3D models can be divided into two categories.

Solid / Detailed – These models define the size of the object and its contents. These are more realistic, but difficult to construct. Solid models are used mostly for nonvisual simulations such as medical and engineering simulations, for CAD and for specialized optical applications such as ray tracing and engineering.


Marker / Cover – These patterns represent only the object’s surface, for example the boundary of an object, and not its size (like an eggshell). These are easier to work with than solid forms. Almost all optical models used in games and movies are shell models.


Because the appearance of an object depends to a large extent on the outside of the object, boundary / shell representations are common in computer graphics. A two-dimensional surface is sufficient to form the object, so a detailed digital approximation using polygonal mesh is the most common representation, although the technique of using a point is required. It has gained some popularity in recent years. Also the technique (level groups) is useful for deforming surfaces that undergo many changes in topography, such as liquids.

Modeling Process

There are three common ways to represent a model:

1. Polygon modeling: connecting points in 3D space, through segments of lines to form a grid of polygons – The vast majority of 3D models today are built as polygon models, because they are flexible and because computers can process the work quickly. However, this method has a problem with curved surfaces, as it uses many polygons to form a streamlined shape.


2. Curve modeling: the surface is shaped by curves, and these curves are affected by the location of the points. Not necessarily the point touching the surface. The method is called Bnerbs (NURBS).


3. Digital sculpture: A relatively new method of modeling, sculpture has become very popular in the few years. There are currently 3 types of digital sculpture: displacement , which are the most widely used among applications. Volumetric and dynamic tessellation. Uses a displacement model (often generated by surfaces) and stores coordinates using a 32bit image map. Volumetric voxel based , in which the surface is partitioned using triangulation to maintain a smooth surface and allow fine detail to be revealed. These methods allow the creation of highly accurate objects.

The modeling stage means shaping the individual bodies that are used at a later time. There are a number of modeling techniques, including:

Solid building engineering
Implicit surfaces
Splitting surfaces

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